Weld Procedure Development
& Welder Qualification

Why do I need Weld Procedure Development & Welder Qualification?

Ensuring compliance to welding and brazing industry codes, specifications and standards can be a burdensome process. Users often:

  • Get bogged down understanding what has changed between revisions
  • Spend valuable time flipping back and forth between documents
  • Find the wording perplexing if they have limited experience using the documents
  • Are overwhelmed if they are unfamiliar with welding and brazing

Moreover, some customers have their own specifications that are intended to address specific requirements and may supersede and/or reference these codes. Understanding how to use and apply these documents is critical for meeting end user and purchaser contractual agreements.

Why Code Compliance is Important to Your Company

Code compliance is important because these codes:

What is Weld Documentation?

Procedure Qualification Records (PQRs) & Welding Procedure Specifications (WPSs)

There are three main types of weld documentation:

• Procedure Qualification Records, PQRs
• Welding Procedure Specifications, WPSs
• Welder Performance Qualifications, WPQs

These are interconnected elements in the realm of welding that collectively ensure the integrity and competency of the welding process.


PQRs serve as comprehensive records documenting specific welding parameters, techniques, and materials used during the qualification process. They undergo rigorous testing and examination to demonstrate that the welding procedures employed are capable of producing sound and reliable welds. PQRs provide a foundation for developing WPSs.
Image representing procedure qualification records.
Hardness traverse


WPSs outline the specific welding procedures to be followed during production welding. They are developed based on the qualified PQRs and serve as standardized guidelines for welders. WPSs encompass critical parameters such as:
  • Base materials
  • Filler materials
  • Joint design
  • Weld parameters (current, polarity, transfer mode, amps, volts, wire feed speed, travel speed)
  • Technique (stringer/weave, work angles, oscillation, interpass cleaning, etc.)
  • Shielding gases and flow rates
  • Preheat and interpass temperatures
  • Post weld heat treatment
  • …and more

Adhering to established WPSs ensures consistent and repeatable weld quality, meeting the specified criteria for strength, integrity, and dimensional accuracy.

Image of Advanced Welding Solutions' Welding Procedure Specification (WPS).


Welder qualifications validate the capabilities and skills of individual welders. This process involves assessing a welder’s ability to perform welds in accordance with the specified procedures and quality requirements. Welder qualifications typically include a combination of practical welding tests and examinations to evaluate a welder’s proficiency and ensure their competence to carry out the required welding tasks.
Pieces of welded metal representing bend test.


The interplay between PQRs, WPSs, and WPQs is crucial for maintaining welding quality and compliance. Proper qualification of procedures through PQRs and the establishment of accurate WPSs provide a standardized framework for welders to follow. Welder performance qualifications ensure that individuals possess the necessary skills and knowledge to execute the welding procedures correctly.

Together, these elements form a comprehensive system that instills confidence in the welding process, enabling organizations to consistently produce high-quality welds and meet industry standards. By emphasizing the importance of PQRs, WPSs, and WPQs, organizations can enhance the:

Welding machinery above sheet metal.


Organizations that become compliant by developing the proper welding documentation, procedures, and processes enjoy benefits including:

  • Cost reduction: Costly rejects, rework, scrap, and labor are reduced if procedures are adhered to.
  • Quality: The welding procedure used to fabricate a structure or component is capable of producing high-quality, defect-free welds. This helps to ensure that the finished product meets the required quality standards and is safe to use.
  • Consistency: Proper documentation ensures that a welding procedure is consistent and repeatable. This helps to ensure that all welds produced using that procedure will have the same quality and properties.
  • Risk reduction: The combination of WPS and qualified welders helps to reduce the risk of weld failure, which can result in costly repairs, downtime, and even injury or loss of life.

Companies attempting to certify an organization to a quality management system (i.e. ISO 9000 family) will see process control requirements as part of that certification process. Each organization will have to show proof of:

  • Process documentation (PQR and WPS)
  • Personnel qualification (WPQ)

Partner with AWS for Weld Procedure and Welder Performance Qualifications

Advanced Welding Solutions is here to help qualify all your welding procedures to any welding code or standard. If you have existing procedures and processes, we can review them for compliance with the appropriate codes, as well.

Commonly Used Welding Codes

A more detailed discussion of specifications and codes is shown below.
American Welding Society Logo

AWS’ mission is “Advancing the science, technology, and application of welding and allied joining and cutting processes, including brazing, soldering and thermal spraying.” AWS has published several hundred welding specifications, standards and documents. All AWS standards are approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). A few common AWS publications:

• AWS B2.1 – Specification for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification
• AWS B2.2 – Specification for Brazing Procedure and Performance Qualification
• AWS D1.1 – Structural Welding Code (Steel)
• AWS D1.2 – Structural Welding Code (Aluminum)
• AWS D1.3 – Structural Welding Code – Sheet Steel
• AWS D1.4 – Structural Welding Code – Reinforcing Steel
• AWS D1.5 – Bridge Welding Code
• AWS D1.6 – Structural Welding Code – Stainless Steel
• AWS D9.1 – Sheet Metal Welding Code
• AWS D14.3 – Specification for Welding Earthmoving, Construction, Agricultural, and Ground-Based Material Handling Equipment
• AWS D17.1 – Specification for Fusion Welding for Aerospace Applications

American Society of Mechanical Engineers logo

ASME publishes the Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) and the Code for Pressure Piping, both of which contain information regarding design, construction, and inspection of boilers and pressure vessels. Common ASME publications:

• ASME BPVC Section I – Rules for Construction of Power Boilers
• ASME BVPC Section III – Rules for Construction of Nuclear Facility Components
• ASME BVPC Section VIII – Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels
• ASME BVPC Section IX – Welding, Brazing & Fusing Qualifications
• ASME B31.1 – Power Piping
• ASME B31.3 – Process Piping
• ASME B31.4 – Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids and Slurries
• ASME B31.8 – Gas Transmission & Distribution Piping Systems
• ASME B31.9 – Building Services Piping

API American Petroleum Institute logo

API establishes and maintains standards for the oil and natural gas industry worldwide. This institute has published 700+ standards relating to petroleum production.

• API 1104 – Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities.


NAVSEA is the primary technical authority for the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of U.S. Navy ships and submarines. NAVSEA has developed several welding codes that are specific to the needs of the Navy.

• NAVSEA S9074-AQ-GIB-010/248 (MIL-STD-248) – Requirements for Welding and Brazing Procedure and Performance Qualification
• NAVSEA S9074-AR-GIB-010/278 (MIL-STD-278) – Requirements for Fabrication, Welding and Inspection, and Casting Inspection and Repair for Machinery, Piping, and Pressure Vessels
• NAVSEA T9074-AS-GIB-010/271 (MIL-STD-271) – Requirements for Nondestructive Testing Methods

Red and white ISO logo, featuring a world icon with the letters "ISO" text over it.

ISO is an independent, non-governmental organization that develops and publishes international standards for various industries, including welding.

● ISO 15614 – Specification and Qualification of Welding Procedures for Metallic Materials – General Rules
● ISO 9606 – Qualification Testing of Welders – Fusion Welding

Let's Work Together

Let’s work together to ensure the quality and compliance of your company’s welds with the correct procedures, specifications, and documentation.